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Bladder prolapse


when the tissues and muscles of the pelvic floor are no longer able to support the organs in the pelvis, the organs can drop from their usual position. As well as the bladder, this can affect the urethra, rectum, cervix, vagina and uterus. This condition is more common in women than men, and crosses over into the field of gynecology and a further subspecialty called urogynecology 

Cancer (bladder, kidney, prostate, testicular)

it is the most commonly diagnosed solid organ cancer in South African men. According to the South African National Cancer Registry (1999), the incidence of prostate cancer in South Africa is increasing at approximately 3% every year.

Urologists also treat cancers of other organs that fall under the scope of urology

Erectile dysfunction

when the penis is unable to attain sufficient rigidity to fully participate in sexual intercourse. Frequently, erectile dysfunction is a symptom of a further underlying problem. Between 15 million and 30 million Americans are estimated to have erectile dysfunction.


while infertility in women is normally treated by gynecologists, male infertility is treated by urologists. Male partners are estimated to contribute to 40% of cases of infertility within couples. The condition can be caused by damage to the male reproductive tract and a variety of sperm disorders. A third of cases are caused by varicoceles - an enlarged vein in the sac beneath the penis

Peyronie's disease

a disorder whereby a fibrous layer of scar tissue develops beneath the skin of the penis. This growth affects the erectile tissue, leading to bending or curving in the penis during erection that can cause pain and lead to difficulties with sexual intercourse

Kidney and ureteral stones


small, hard deposits made from mineral and acid salts form in the kidneys but can pass through into the ureters. Stones can affect urination and cause pain, nausea and vomiting​ 

Urinary tract infections (UTIs)

a common complaint in women, whose lifetime risk is more than 50%. UTIs are frequently caused by the migration of bacteria from the digestive tract to the urethra. Common symptoms include abnormal urination, pain, incontinence, nausea, vomiting, fevers and chills

Enlarged prostate

also referred to as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH affects around one-third of men over 50.9 The prostate is a male gland located just below the bladder, surrounding the urethra. In BPH, an overgrowth of cells in the central portion of the gland causes the urethra to constrict, hindering urination and making it difficult for the bladder to be emptied

Undescended testes

also referred to as cryptorchidism, undescended testicle is the most common genital abnormality in men. Around 4% of males are born with the condition. In normal development, testicles form inside the abdomen and descend into the scrotum before birth. If one or both do not descend, sperm production can be impaired and the risk of injury is much higher 

Urethral stricture

whereby scarring of the urethra can narrow or block the path of urine flowing from the bladder. Urethral stricture can be caused by infection, inflammation or injury, leading to urinary symptoms such as painful urination and reduced output. Complications include other urologic conditions such as prostatitis and urinary tract infections.

Interstitial cystitis


a chronic inflammatory bladder condition producing discomfort at varying levels and frequencies. Although the cause is unknown, it is believed that a breakdown in the bladder's lining could be related to the disease.


an involuntary loss of bladder control caused by part of the urinary system malfunctioning. Close to 20 million Americans are believed to experience urinary incontinence - 85% of whom are women​


infection or inflammation of the prostate (as opposed to overgrowth as in BPH) can cause painful urination or ejaculation. Prostatitis is the most common urologic condition in men under 50. Cases can be acute or chronic

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